The chambers, through a consortium of non-governmental organizations from Senegal, Belgium and Chad that received a contract from the court, undertook outreach programs to both Chad and Senegal. The consortium has trained journalists in both countries, organized public debates, created a website and produced materials to explain the trial. Human Rights Watch was part of a separate consortium of non-governmental organizations that facilitated the travel of Chadian journalists to Senegal to cover the trial, and the travel of Senegalese journalists to Chad during the pre-trial proceedings.
Victims were permitted to participate in proceedings as civil parties.
More than 4, victims registered as civil parties. Two teams of lawyers represented the civil parties, questioning witnesses, presenting evidence and participating in the closing statements. The victims also left their mark on the trial through their long campaign for justice as well as their dramatic testimony.
Under its statute , in the event of a conviction, the chambers may order reparations against the accused. There is also a Chadian court judgment ordering the government to make reparations see below. Whether Habre is found guilty or acquitted, all parties in the trial — that is the prosecution, the accused and the victims with respect to their civil interests, could appeal. If an appeal is lodged by any party, an Extraordinary African Appeals Chamber would be constituted to hear the appeal. How are the Extraordinary Chambers structured and administered? The Extraordinary African Chambers were created inside the existing Senegalese court structure in Dakar.
The chambers have four levels: an Investigative Chamber with four Senegalese investigative judges, an Indicting Chamber of three Senegalese judges, a Trial Chamber, and an Appeals Chamber. The chambers also have an administrator to ensure the smooth functioning of their activities and to handle all non-judicial aspects of the work. During the Chad trial, about 50 victims described their torture and mistreatment at the hands of DDS agents.
Most of the 20 gave their testimony to the chambers when they visited Chad, but the Chadian government also refused to allow them to travel to Senegal to testify at trial. The Chadian court acquitted four others.
One year after the court decision, the Chadian government has not implemented any of these compensatory measures. The chambers are funded in large part by donor countries. The Netherlands has also given extra support to the Outreach consortium. In addition, Canada, Switzerland, and the International Committee of the Red Cross have provided technical assistance.
A Steering Committee chaired by the African Union and consisting of Senegal and the donors receives and approves periodic reports from the administrator. What will happen to the Extraordinary Chambers after the trial? In and , Belgium issued three more extradition requests, which were not properly transmitted by the Senegalese authorities to its courts.
Negotiations resumed between Senegal and the AU, ultimately leading to an agreement to create the Extraordinary African Chambers to conduct proceedings within the Senegalese judicial system. On December 17, the Senegalese National Assembly adopted a law establishing the special chambers. There has been an increase in the use of universal jurisdiction over the past 20 years, notably but not exclusively by courts in European countries.
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